TISSUE CULTURE:Techniques & Uses
What is Tissue Culture?
Tissue culture is a process that involves exposing plant tissue to a specific regimen of nutrients, hormones, and light under sterile, in vitro conditions to produce many new plants, each a clone of the original mother plant, over a very short period of time. AgriForest's tissue culture plants are characterised by disease free growth, a more fibrous, healthier root system, a bushier branching habit, and a higher survival rate.
There are three main steps to the tissue culture process:
STAGE I is the initiation phase. It concerns the establishment of plant tissue in vitro by sterilising the material and initiating it into culture.
STAGE II is the multiplication phase. At this stage, the in vitro plant material is re-divided and placed in a medium with plant growth regulators that induce the proliferation of multiple shoots. This process is repeated many times until the number of plants desired is reached.
STAGE III is the root formation phase. It involves the introduction of hormones to induce rooting and the formation of complete plantlets.
Method of tissue culture:
1. Explant method:
2. Monolayer method:
3. Organ culture method:
Plant tissue culture now has direct commercial applications as well as value in basic research into cell biology, genetics and biochemistry. The techniques include culture of cells, anthers, ovules and embryos on experimental to industrial scales, protoplast isolation and fusion, cell selection and meristem and bud culture. Applications include:
- micropropagation using meristem and shoot culture to produce large numbers of identical individuals
- screening programmes of cells, rather than plants for advantageous characters
- large-scale growth of plant cells in liquid culture as a source of secondary products
- crossing distantly related species by protoplast fusion and regeneration of the novel hybrid
- production of dihaploid plants from haploid cultures to achieve homozygous lines more rapidly in breeding programmes
- as a tissue for transformation, followed by either short-term testing of genetic constructs or regeneration of transgenic plants
- removal of viruses by propagation from meristematic tissues